Sunday, 13 October 2013

Butlers of Co. Wexford- Ch.14: Walter Butler Junior of Munphin Pt.2- Military record


Two years after the Treaty of Ryswick (30 October 1697), and the reduction of the Irish regiments in France, Europe once more found itself embroiled in war. On the death of Charles II of Spain on 1 November 1700, the succession of the Spanish throne and subsequent control over her empire was bequeathed to the House of Bourbon, which would unite the Kingdoms of France and Spain. This threat to the balance of power in Europe was unacceptable to the rest of Europe, and to England.
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia,  who had himself a claim to the Spanish throne (through his Spanish royal mother, Maria Anna of Spain), prepared to send an expedition to seize the Spanish lands in Italy.

He would be joined by England, Portugal and the Dutch Republic (the United Provinces), to oppose France and Spain in their attempt to acquire new territories and protect their existing dominions. The war was fought in Spain, the ‘Low Countries’, Germany, and Italy, even spreading to the Spanish held Americas. Some 400,000 people would be killed in the conflict, which was concluded with treaties in 1713-1714. The War of the Spanish Succession which began in 1701, was concluded with the Treaties of Utrecht in 1713 and Rastatt in 1714. [i]

In 1702 Emperor Leopold appointed one of his Imperial army commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy as President of the Imperial War Council, and immediate steps were taken to improve officers within the army, and discipline was improved. Throughout 1703 and early 1704, the Imperial ambassador Count Wratislaw had pressed for English and Dutch assistance on the Danube. The survival of the Holy Roman Empire, and its seat of power in Vienna, was under threat. The English Captain General, John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough, realised the importance of an alliance with Austria in order to save the Empire and met with Eugene in June 1704. Thus began a military partnership that would go down in history. As Winston Churchill wrote:[ii] “Marlborough’s military brotherhood with Eugene, a comradeship unmatched in the annals of war between commanders of equal fame and capacity”. He also commented on “Marlborough’s relations with Wratislaw, the plenipotentiary of the Emperor. In him, the Emperor had an agent of tireless activity and the highest persuasiveness and tact. He saw deep into the politics of London and The Hague, and he had the confidence of Marlborough”.

Many of the Irish officers and soldiers of regiments disbanded in 1698, served as ‘volunteers on half pay in the line’. The Duke de Villeroi wrote about the numbers of men serving in his battalions, describing “the Irish who were numerous with a great number of reformed officers”.

Roisin Ni Mhear wrote about the Wild Geese in Austria at this time:
Irish units had filled the ranks of the Austrian army since the mid 1600’s, fighting against the French and then against the invading Turks. During this period, Charles of Lorraine was given the High Command in the Turkish war and the relief of Vienna under siege, and with him went his Irish contingent, led by his Cavalry General Francis Taaffe. Taaffe (the future Earl of Carlingford, who became one of the most influential figures in Europe- a great soldier, and a great statesman). After the Treaty of Ryswick, (in which thanks to Taaffe’s diplomacy, Lorraine was returned to the Imperial fold), the affairs of the Duchy of Lorraine were put entirely into that Irishman’s hands. Both Cavanagh and Walsh regiments are stationed in the capital Nancy. After the Treaty in 1697, when the army of James II was disbanded in France, “there were many groups of Jacobites reaching Austria from France during this period. Arriving through diverse channels they join together in filling the ranks of the victorious Eugene of Savoy. Rising quickly to become the most renowned commander in Europe, it was the lot of many Irishmen to fight with him, and against him- and against each other!. ‘The Irish are the best foot-soldiers the enemy has to offer’, Eugene reports back to Vienna from the Italian campaign of 1702. And on his advice, Emperor Leopold I decides to raise a special Irish battalion in Italy. Irish officers eagerly set to the task of winning over their countrymen. When the campaign ended in Italy in late 1707, Prince Eugene leaves chiefly Irish officers in control, charged with restoring order in those war-torn lands, stationed as far south as Sicily.” [iii]

Walter Butler Junior found that he could not return to his native land, so he was one of these officers who had joined the Imperial army fighting against France, and was finally stationed in Ostiglia Lombardy in northern Italy in April 1708.
The exact timing of Walter’s joining the allied army is uncertain. In his own petition, (previously discussed- probably dated 1706), he stated that sometimes afterwards, (he) quitted France and repaired to his Kinsman, the late Earl of Carlingford, by whose recommendation he got the Command of a Troop of Cuirassiers and in that Station did serve the late Emperor for several years with zeal and fidelity under the conduct of Prince Eugene of Savoy.”
He had been under attainder for his services to France (at a time when France was an enemy of England), however, his father’s petition in November 1703 also states, thatWalter Butler Jnr hath long since quitted France and went to Lorraine to the Earl of Carlingford, his Cozen German (viz. Francis Taaffe), who recommended him to Prince Eugene of Savoy who gave him a Troop of Cuirassiers under his own command where he still continues.

Walter’s father's statement in his  petition of November 1703 that Walter Junior had quit the French and served under Prince Eugene for several years, would indicate that he had joined the Austrian army fairly early in the campaign, possibly in 1702 when Leopold decided to raise a special Irish battalion in Italy. However, Walter Jnr would also claim in a petition that he had quit the French service and joined the Imperial army on the Queen’s proclamation. Francis Gwynn reported in 1714 on the Roman Catholic officers, including Walter Butler, who had quit the French service and joined the Imperialist army, one of whom, Captain Michael Fitzgerald claimed he was made a Captain of Grenadiers in Prince Louis of Baden’s regiment in the Emperor’s Service upon his quitting that of the French, which he alleges he did upon Her Majesty’s Proclamation in 1704 and served afterwards in Count Taaffe’s regiment amongst the Imperialist in Her Majesty’s pay in Catalonia. The contradictions in Walter’s claims of when he joined the Imperial army are difficult to explain and may have been made to serve his purpose at the time of his petitions. Possibly, he briefly served in 1702-04 under Prince Eugene and Prince Louis of Baden, hoping to gain permission to return to Ireland, and when this did not eventuate maybe he rejoined the Imperial Army following the Queen’s Proclamation, signing up for a longer term. In June 1704, the Duke of Marlborough, John Churchill, Captain-General of the British forces, met for the first time with the President of the Imperial War Council Prince Eugene accompanied by Count Wratislaw and joined by the Imperial Field Commander Prince Louis, Margrave of Baden. This meeting led to the Queen’s Proclamation.

The Bill stated that Walter was ‘recommended’ by the Earl of Carlingford, his ‘cousin german’. Carlingford (b.1639) was the 3rd Earl, Francis Taaffe, an army commander in the service of the Holy Roman Empire (in Vienna) and later of the Duke of Lorraine in Nancy. Brought up at Olműtz at the imperial court and in the service of Duke Charles V of Lorraine (d. 1690) [iv], whose most intimate friend he became, he  rose to the rank of field marshall having greatly distinguished himself at the Battle of Vienna and in other Turkish campaigns. He was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece and was sent on many diplomatic missions. At the end of his life he was chancellor and chief minister to Leopold Duke of Lorraine, dying without issue in August 1704 in Nancy, the capital of Lorraine.

Notably, in 1686, James II, then King of England, placed his (illegitimate) son James fitzJames “under the care of an Irish officer of eminence in the Imperial service, Lieutenant-General, the Honourable Count Francis Taaffe (who was at that time the brother of Nicholas the Earl of Carlingford), in order to commence his military career, against the Turks, with the Austrian Army, under the Duke of Lorraine, in Hungary. James fitzJames was present there, and distinguished, at the capture of Buda. Returning from the winter to England, James fitzJames was created, in March 1687, Duke of Berwick, Earl of Tinmonth, and Baron of Bosworth. The Duke of Berwick rejoined the Austrians that spring in Hungary; was commissioned by the Emperor Leopold I., a Colonel Commandant of Taaffe’s Regiment of Cuirassiers, etc.” [v]
O’Callaghan continues:
This corps (the Regiment of Taaffe), previously the Duke of Lorrain’s Regiment of Cuirassiers, and at its full complement 1000 strong, was called that of Taaffe, from its Colonel, the celebrated Francis, 4th Viscount Taaffe, and 3rd Earl of Carlingford in Ireland, Count, Imperial Chamberlain, Counsellor of State and Cabinet, Lieutenant-General of the Horse, and Veldt-Marshal in Austria, and Knight of the Golden Fleece in Spain, deceased in 1704. Among the Imperial officers who fell at Cremona was a nephew of that distinguished nobleman, or the Honourable Lambert Taaffe, son of the honourable Major John Taaffe, slain in King James II’s army before Derry in 1689, and whose other son, Theobald, succeeded to the family titles. The name of Taaffe has continued to our times connected with Irish and Austrian nobility.

Francis Taaffe, the second son of Theobald Taaffe, 1st Earl of Carlingford and 2nd Viscount Taaffe (who accompanied Charles II in exile in 1652), succeeded from his brother Nicholas, the 2nd Earl, who had been attainted and fell at the Battle of the Boyne. However, despite his Jacobite connections, Francis’s title to the earldom of Carlingford was confirmed by William III and the attainder and forfeiture of estates incurred by his brother was repealed, owing to his position at the court of the Austrian emperor, William’s most important ally. Francis Taaffe’s mother was Mary White, the daughter of Sir Nicholas White of Leixlip, and sister to Eleanor, Walter Butler Junior’s mother, making Walter and Francis first cousins.

The Petition stated that Walter was given a Troop of Cuirassiers by his Prince Eugene. “Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armor and firearms. The term is derived from cuirass, the breastplate armor which they wore. By the end of the 17th century, their armor consisted of only a breastplate (the cuirass or plastron), the backplate (carapace), and the helmet. By 1705, the Holy Roman Emperor’s personal forces in Austria included 20 cuirassier regiments. Cuirassiers were generally the senior branch of the mounted arm retaining their status as heavy cavalry- “Big men on big horses”. [vi]

Walter Senior also stated in November 1703 that at the Siege of Landau, “Walter had headed a party that sallied forth out of that Garrison”. Landau, part of Alsace, was an important fort near the border between the German Empire and the Duchy of Lorraine, about 100 miles NE of Nancy. (Alsace-Lorraine separates Germany from France) Landau was occupied by the French 1680 to 1815. In September 1702, it had been captured by the Imperial army led by Prince Louis of Baden.  Walter was probably placed there by either Carlingford or the Margrave of Baden, to guard this strategic position. (Notably, his step-brother Pierce [Galmoy], under Marshall Tallard, had laid Landau under siege- the consequences of which could have been tragic for this family.)The siege took place in mid October 1703, as the allied armies prepared to go into winter camp along the Moselle river, when the French Commander, duc de Tallard by surprise closed in on Landau and started the siege. Allied troops (Swedish) arrived to relieve them and the Battle of Speyerbach took place on November 15, 1703 (this action was during the War of the Spanish Succession). Tallard achieved one of the biggest French victories of the war and Landau capitulated the same day. 6500 allied troops and 3500-4000 French troops were killed or wounded, and 2000 allied troops taken prisoner.

The Siege of Landau is described in Wikipedia [vii]:
The Battle of Speyerbach took place on November 15, 1703, in the War of the Spanish Succession. A French army besieging Landau surprised and defeated a German relief army near Speyer.
In mid October 1703, the allied armies prepared to go into winter camp along the Moselle river, when (Marshall) Tallard by surprise closed in on Landau and started the siege on October 17.
On 28 October the allies ordered the Crown-Prince of Hessen-Kassel, the future King Frederick I of Sweden, to move south to lift the siege of Landau. Hessen-Kassel would have to cooperate with the Count of Nassau-Weilburg, who was on the right bank of the Rhine with 24 battalions and 18 squadrons.
Both armies met on November 13 near Speyer and made camp south of the river Speyerbach where Nassau-Weilburg and Hessen-Kassel waited for reinforcements to march to Landau on 16 November.
Tallard had meanwhile decided not to wait for the enemy at Landau, but to march towards them and deliver battle. He ordered troops under Armand, marquis de Pracomtal at Saarbrucken, to join him at Essingen.
The German troops were not expecting a French attack and their camp was not planned for defence. Furthermore, the command, including both Hessen-Kassel and Nassau-Weiberg, was gathered in Speyer on November 15, in order to celebrate the emperor’s birthday.
At 07:00 the united French armies marched towards Speyer, where they arrived at 12:00 and deployed until 13:00. The German troops, in absence of their leaders reacted slowly and in confusion. General Vehlen did his best to position the army, but large gaps were left in the left wing.
Tallard ordered 14 squadrons of his right wing to attack. This attack failed to destroy the allied left wing but succeeded in passing through the gaps in their line. At about this moment Nassau-Weilburg arrived on the field and intervened with his cavalry. This led to a defeat of the French cavalry. Instead of disengaging his troops and reforming a line, Nassau-Weilburg pursued the French with his Palatine cavalry on a terrain which was not suitable for horses.
About 14:00, the whole French army attacked. On the left wing the French cavalry was decisively beaten by the allied cavalry. The French lost 19 standards and Pracontal was killed. In the centre the allies held, but on their right wing the French were successful. On the utter right, 6 battalions started by driving Vehlen’s cavalry back. It lost its cohesion and fled. The French infantry attacked the Palatine infantry and this fled too. The French then started to envelope the enemy centre. This caused an enormous amount of casualties amongst these troops. The remaining German troops retreated in good order and the battle ended when they started to recross the Speyerbach at about 17:00. The French did not hinder them in this operation.
Tallard achieved one of the biggest French victories of the war. Landau capitulated the same day. This French victory has been overshadowed in history by their colossal defeat in the Battle of Blenheim nine months later.


Prince Eugene of Savoy  had a renowned military career fighting for Emperor Leopold of Austria against the French and the Ottoman Turks throughout Europe, and at his death in 1736, was one of the wealthiest men in Europe. (Eugene’s “Memoirs of Prince Eugene of Savoy” written by himself, translated from the French by William Mudford, London, 1811, makes interesting reading as he describes his campaigns and his tactics and opinions during his long military career- can be read online.)

Napoleon Bonaparte considered Eugene of the seven greatest commanders of history, although this is disputed by other historians.
Eugene was a strong disciplinarian but rejected blind brutality writing “you should only be harsh when, as often happens, kindness proves useless.”
On the battlefield, Eugene demanded courage in his subordinates, and expected his men to fight where and when he wanted; his criteria for promotion were based primarily on obedience to orders and courage on the battlefield rather than social position. On the whole, his men responded because he was willing to push himself as hard as them. [viii]

Having been raised in the French court but denied the command of a company in the French service by King Louis XIV who remarked that “no-one else ever presumed to stare me out so insolently”,[ix]  Eugene transferred his loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy in 1682. He had a renowned military career, remarkably surviving several serious wounds received on the battlefield, and at the time of his death in 1736 at his grand palace of Belvedere in Vienna aged 72, was one of the wealthiest men in Europe. It was not due to an imposing physical stature that Eugene commanded such high respect, the Prussian commissary describing his first meeting: “Eugene had at first to live down the disappointing impression given by his stunted frame, his slouch, and the pock-marked cheeks which sagged in his pale face. At headquarters and in the heat of the fighting, in deliberations and bold calculated deeds, in his domination of councils of war and his irresistible power of command, he revealed his worth as a man and a soldier.”[x] It has been written that “on the battlefield, Eugene demanded courage in his subordinates, and expected his men to fight where and when he wanted; his criteria for promotion were based primarily on obedience to orders and courage on the battlefield rather than social position. On the whole, his men responded because he was willing to push himself as hard as them.” [xi] 
Eugene expressed great praise of the fighting abilities and courage of the Irish soldiers on both sides of the conflict. In his “Memoirs”, Eugene frequently mentioned the role his regiments of cuirassiers played in his accounts of battles, not always complimentary. On the attack on Bavaria in 1704, he wrote: “My infantry did well; my cavalry very bad.”[xii]

Records indicate that Walter Butler Junior fought for the Austro-Hungarian Army until 1708, during which time he kept his rank of Colonel.  The battles he fought during this time, under Prince Eugene, are well documented, and as Eugene was often in conflict with Galmoy’s Regiment during those years, once again, these two brothers were on opposite sides in these confrontations.

Prince Eugene of Savoy was appointed commander in Italy in 1701, in charge of 30,000 “men of good and ancient troops”, in Eugene’s own words. [xiii]  At the end of the Italian campaign in 1702, the Imperial war chest was bare, and the condition and morale of Eugene’s troops was poor. “Austria was facing the threat of invasion from across the border in Bavaria, where the state’s Elector Maximilian Emanuel had declared for the Bourbons. Meanwhile in Hungary a small scale revolt had broken out in Hungary. With the monarchy at the point of complete financial breakdown, Emperor Leopold I (Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) was at last persuaded to change the government and in 1703, Leopold appointed Prince Eugene President of the Imperial War Council. Immediate steps were taken to improve officers within the army and where possible, money was sent to the commanders in the field; promotions and honours were distributed according to service rather than influence, and discipline was improved. Vendome (the French Marshal) remained at the head of a large army in northern Italy opposing Guido Starhemberg’s weak Imperial force.
The Imperial ambassador in London, Count Wratislaw, had pressed for Anglo-Dutch assistance on the Danube as early as February 1703. Only a handful of statesmen in England realised the true implication of Austria’s peril; foremost amongst these was the English Captain-General the Duke of Marlborough. By early 1704, Marlborough had resolved to march south and rescue Vienna, personally requesting the presence of Eugene on campaign and they met for the first time on 10 June and immediately formed a close rapport. Within a few months they would combine their talents at the Battle of Blenheim.” [xiv]


The battles in which Eugene was involved, are well documented. In summary, Walter may have fought in the following important strategic battles against the French, under Eugene’s command:
(the battle casualties are given to illustrate the frightful attrition rate during these battles)
Eugene began his campaign in Italy:
September 1701- Battle of Chiari- victory for Prince Eugene- occupied most of the Duchy of Mantua in northern Italy, except the city of Mantua itself. (Casualites and losses: 220 Imperial; 2000 to 3800 French)

February 1702- Battle of Cremona- indecisive outcome- although Eugene was forced to withdraw after a relieving army approached, Eugene famously captured the French Commander-in-chief, the Duc de Villeroi, and other high ranking French officers. (Casualites and losses: 500 Imperial; 1000 French dead)
Putting the city of Mantau under siege, Eugene lost all posts he had previously captured except Ostiglia.

August 1702- Battle of Luzzara- indecisive- raged until darkness, afterwhich the 2 armies lay facing each other until the French decamped first on 4 November ending the 1702 campaign. (Casualites and losses: 2000 Imperial; 4000 French)
Eugene left his Imperial army in Italy under the command of Guido Starhemberg,[xv] and returned to defend Vienna. Whether Walter was with him at this stage is uncertain.

1703- Eugene in his Memoirs, wrote that his only military success in 1703 was to repulse the rebels of Hungary to prevent Vienna from being disturbed, and saving Presburg.

Oct-Nov 1703-Battle of Speyerbach/Siege of Landau- in mid Oct 1703, the allied armies prepared to go into winter camp along the Moselle River, when General Tallard (French) by surprise closed in on Landau and started the siege on 17 October. The command was gathered in nearby Speyer on 15 November in order to celebrate the Emperor’s birthday when Tallard marched towards Speyer, surprising the allied troops. This was the occasion, according to Walter Butler Snr, that his son Walter had sallied forth from the garrison of Landau with a troop of cuirassiers. That would indicate that Walter was part of the garrison protecting the fort of Landau. Landau, on the Rhine, had been captured by Louis Margrave of Baden on 9 September 1702. This was a month after Eugene had returned from Italy to defend Vienna.
 (Casualites and losses: 6000 allies plus 2500 prisoners; 3500-4000 French killed or wounded)

August 1704- Battle of Blenheim- a resounding and famous victory by allied forces of the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene. Winston Churchill paid tribute to: [xvi]
 the glory of Prince Eugene, whose fire and spirit had exhorted the wonderful exertions of his troops; who after contending all day against heavy odds held the initiative and the offensive to the end, and who, in the midst of local disaster had not hesitated to answer Marlborough’s call for the Cuirassier brigade.
(Casualites and losses: 4542 allies killed, 7942 wounded; 20,000 French killed drowned or wounded, 14,190 captured)
The battle front then moved back to Italy.

August 1705- Battle of Cassano- a French victory in which Galmoy and his Regiment received accolades for their courageous actions. (Casualites and losses: 5000 Imperial dead or wounded; 4000 French dead or wounded) During this campaign, Prince Eugene suffered two wounds of which he wrote in his ‘Memoirs’[xvii]:
I received a musket shot in the throat; and, in spite of the blood which flowed copiously, I still continued, till a second ball, which struck me above the knee, obliged me to retire to have my wounds dressed.
Despite the wounds, he continued to command up until the army’s retirement into their winter quarters, which is a measure of the fortitude of this extraordinary commander. The Imperial army broke through the French lines and was only contained by the efforts of the second line containing the regiments of Dillon, Burke and Galmoy. Galmoy suffered the loss of 40 officers killed or wounded and it was there that they found themselves in a moat up to their waists in water and pulled themselves up by their teeth to get a shot at the enemy. Being shot at by enemy cannon on the other banki of the Adda they swam across and put it out of action. 
(Ref: Regiment of Galmoy 1698-1714 by Robert Hall, Wild Geese website: )

A letter written from Milan by an Irish Franciscan priest, Fr. J. Egan (from Nenagh), on 27 August 1705 to a fellow priest back in Ireland gives a shocking account of the damage done to just one of the regiments involved in this battle, namely Galmoy’s Regiment which was part of the Brigade of Col. Walter Burke which also included Berwick’s, Fitgerald’s and Burke’s Regiments: [xviii]
“I am to give you a disastrous and sad account of your poor flock which are utterly lost in the battle of Cassano, August the 16th. It’s no more a regiment, being there is but a hundred men of soldiers there alive. Of Galmoy’s Regiment killed and dead. Captn Jeffray Fay (of Trumroe Westmeath) shott through his thighs, dead the 23rd of his cruel wounds; Capt Coppinger dead on the spot; Capt Bremages dead also; Major Edmund Murphy dead of his wounds; Capt Nicolas Russell dead; Capt Courvine dead; My Lord Dunkell dead; Lt John Murphy dead; Lt. Pat. MacMahon dead; Lt Brine Heues dead; Lt Pierce beg Buttler dead; Lt Swiny dead; Lt Redmond Ardeckin dead; Lt Miles Reily dead; Lt John Len Condon dead.
Of Galmoy’s wounded: Lt Colonel shott in the leg; Capt Roch shot in the shoulder; Capt Pierce Buttler in the body; Capt Ed Kearny in the heel; Capt Rushe in the body; Capt Oddi in the leg; Lt. White in the blind eye; Lt. Doude in the eye; Lt. Peter mac Dermot twice in the body; Lt. Brine mac Nahon in both legs; Lt. Pat Bern in the leg; Lt. Alexander Macdonnell thrice in the body; Lt. Smith in the body; Lt. Neile in the body; Lt. John Burgett in the body; Lt. James Donelly in the body; Lt. Lucas Everard behind his neck; Lt. John Higgins in the body; Lt. Therence Branagan in the body; Lt Walker in the body; Lt Devett in the hand; Lt. Savage in the hand; Lt Hugh Reilly in the body; Lt. David Barry all crushed; Lt Thomas Purzell prisoner and wounded.’
32 grenadiers killed with their officers.
200 soldiers lost and 50 wounded.”
He then continues to list those officers killed and wounded in the other regiments named, although the numbers were considerably less than Galmoy’s losses.
His final figures for the whole battle, are unsubstantiated (and differ from those figures above) but give an idea of the dreadful losses experienced in just this one battle:
Imperial army: 8000 dead, 18000 wounded, 500 prisoners
French army: 2000 dead, 1500 wounded, 400 officers killed and wounded, a general, a colonel and 3 brigadiers killed.

April 1706- Battle of Calcinato- French victory during which Walter’s brother Lord Galmoy was reported in the ‘Paris Gazette’ as having acted very bravely during this campaign.
 (Casualites and losses: 500 Imperial; 6000 French dead or wounded)

September 1706- Battle of Turin- a decisive win for Eugene (Casualites and losses: 20000 French)
in September 1706, which was placed under siege for four months by a large Franco-Spanish army of nearly 40,000 men, Turin was relieved in September by the arrival of Prince Eugene’s forces. Eugene marched his 30,000 men nearly 200 miles from Verona to relieve the French siege of Turin. The Imperial victory, despite the odds, was a tactical masterpiece. Prince Eugene described this triumph in detail in his ‘Memoirs’, recounting an incident that clearly demonstrates the dependence of the troops on the continued presence of a commander of Eugene’s charismatic and heroic stature, the demise of whom could alter the course of a battle:[xix]
It was in rallying them who had been already put into confusion that my horse, wounded by a musket shot, threw me into a ditch. They thought I was dead, and they say, that this belief caused a momentary sensation among the troops. The order which I gave, remounting on horseback, covered with dust, mud, and blood, to fire a volley upon the French cavalry, relieved my infantry, who kept themselves firm on the part of the lines which they had forced.
And after the French defeat:
I drew out my telescope, which I never use but when I cannot reconnoitre close, and seeing them (the French) fly towards Pignerol, rather than retire, I said to the Duke of Savoy, ‘My cousin, Italy is ours!’ It may be easily imagined how we were both received in Turin.
On hearing from Eugene about the victory, Marlborough wrote to his wife Sarah on the 26 September:[xx]
It is impossible to express the joy it has given me; for I not only esteem but I really love that Prince (Eugene). This glorious action must bring France so low, that if our friends could but be persuaded to carry on the war with vigour one year longer, we could not fail, with the blessing of God, to have such a peace as would give us quiet in our days.
Unfortunately, Marlborough’s prediction of impending peace was not to be.
Eugene’s victory at Turin is still celebrated today. The capture of Turin was an important turning point, as the Duchy of Savoy was the southern gateway to France.

Once again, shortly after the capture of Turin, Eugene was wounded: “Going to reconnoitre the post of Caracorta, I received a severe contusion in my left arm by a musket-ball.”[xxi] He then retired to Vienna for the winter.
Prince Eugene’s ultimately successful campaign in Lombardy in 1705/06 marked the beginning of 150 years of Austrian rule in Lombardy.
August 1707- a failed siege at Toulon (the important strategic French naval port), where the Imperial Army were forced to retire; their only victory was the destruction of the French naval fleet by the British navy. (Casualites and losses: 10,000 allies dead or wounded; French casualites unknown).
Compensated by the subsequent re-capture of Suza.

Eugene’s army then retired to Ostiglia in Lombardy for the winter period.
At the beginning of 1708, Eugene, without his army (who were at their Imperial Camp in Ostiglia Lombardy, charged with restoring order in the recaptured Italy), took command of the Imperial army on the Moselle. He arrived, without his army, just west of Brussels in early July and broke the French siege at Oudenarde. Eugene, Marlborough and the Dutch then resolved upon the siege of Lille, Eugene overseeing the siege of the town which surrendered on 22 October. Eugene was badly wounded above the left eye by a musket ball, and also survived a poison attack. At this point he would have retired to his palace in Vienna to recuperate.

The recent defeats and the severe winter of 1708/09 caused extreme famine and privation in France, resulting in peace talks, but the conditions demanded by the Allies were unacceptable, and the talks broke down.

At some stage after May 1708, Walter retired from the Army, and returned to County Wexford to live a quiet life. Whether he returned directly to Ireland, or resided for a time in England, has not been established. His mother-in-law was recorded as living at Munfin in 1715 and his youngest daughter was born at Munfin in 1718.
The following records supply the details of his retirement.

The Calendar of Treasury Papers, Vol 4 (1708-1714) [xxii]
1714, about July 15
33. “Copy. Mr Gwyn’s report of the cases of several Roman Catholick officers who upon her Majesty’s proclamation quitted the enemy in the late war.”
Also “Abstract of the pretensions of the Roman Catholick officers who came over to the Allies upon her Majesty’s proclamation, & claim the Queen’s Bounty answerable to the posts they quitted in the enemy’s service.”
The following are the officers’ names:-
Sir Timothy Daly
Col. Tho. Macarty
Col. Walter Butler
&c. plus seven Captains (Cowdall, O’Hara, Dillon, Talbot, FitzGerald, Maly, Molloy)
and one Major (Jennings).
Their cases are individually reported on.
Minuted:- 15 July 1714. Dillon, Fitzgerald, Jennings & O’Hara to be paid their proportions within mentioned, on the same conditions with the other officers, & Mr Secretary-at-War to prepare a wt for that purpose. The rest to be referred to Mr Secretary-at-War to be further examined.6 pages.

Calendar of Treasury Papers, Vol 5 (1714-1719)  [xxiii] p150
1715 (about 28 October)
81. Petition to the King of Lt-Col Walter Butler, one of the seven Irish officers who quitted the enemy’s service and came over to the Allies on her late Majesty’s proclamation. There was due to him four year’s pay for the time he served under Prince Eugene of Savoy. Francis Gwyn, late Secretary-at-War, had made a most unjust report on his case, as appears from the Hon. Wm. Pulteney’s report to the Lords of the Treasury, on the 10th June last. Begs his Majesty to order the Lords of the Treasury to examine into his case, and to pay him his demand of his allegations be found to be true.
Minuted:- “Look out his papers. 28th October 1715. Read.” 1 page

The original records, described above in the Calendar of Treasury Papers, were supplied by UK National Archives:
McGwyns Report of the Cases of Several Roman Catholick Officers who upon Her Majesty’s Proclamation, quitted the Enemy in the late Warr [xxiv]
15 July 1714
Dillon, Fitzpatrick, Jennings and O’Hara to be paid etc. (difficult to read)

To the Most Hon/ble Robert Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain
May it please Your Lords,
In Obedience to Your Lordship’s Commands Signifyed to me by Mr Lowndes Letter of the 26th past, that I should consider the Cases of Several Roman Catholick Officers, who quitted the Enemy’s Service in the late Warr, as Stated in an Examination taken before the Lords of the Committee of Councill, herewith returned, And that I should propose what may be reasonable to be pay’d the said Officers in full of all Pretensions from Her Majesty, and to discharge all future Attendances or Expectations here; I have accordingly considered the Several Cases of the said Officers, as Stated in the aforesaid Examination, And do humbly offer to Your Lordships the following observations thereupon. (Report then goes through each of the Officers named, case by case and giving the recommendations.)
"As to Lt Col Walter Butler, who alledges he quitted that Post in the ffrench Service, and came over to that of the Emperor, in whose Service he continued ffour years without any pay, and expended upwards of 600 pound, to support himself therein, And where he seems to have the best pretensions to some future provision besides his arrears, but being married and settled here, declines going abroad, I cannot propose anything in his behalf, except Her Majesty shall be graciously pleased to grant him Six Months Pay as Lt Colonel of ffoot, the Post he quitted in the ffrench Services, as of Her Majesty's Royal Bounty, And that the Payment of the arrears due to him in the Emperor's Service, may be recommended to his Imperial Majesty."

In the “Abstract” at the end of the document:
 Officer’s name: Col Walter Butler,
Quality in the ffrench or Spanish Service and when quitted: quitted as Lt Col of ffoot in the Year 1704, and came over to the Emperor’s Service in Germany.
What is further proposed to be payed and done for them; The payment of his arrears in the Emperor’s Service to be recommended to his Imperial Majesty and Six Months Pay as Lt Col of ffoot- ₤136.10s.

As Francis Gwyn was not sympathetic and only recommended he receive 6 months pay at rank of Lt. Col of Foot and that the payment for arrears to be recommended to his Imperial Majesty, unhappy with the decision, Walter petitioned  on 26th Oct 1715, stating that Gwyn had been most unfair in his assessment and had not mentioned his letters from Carlingford or Prince Eugene and that he had stated that Walter had only "alledged" he had the rank of Lt Col. (see following)
The report of the Cases of Seven RC Officers who upon Her Majesty's Proclamation quitted the Enemy in the late war is dated 15 July 1714.
 It has a rather interesting statement in the report: that “ being married and settled here, declines going abroad.”
As his mother-in-law was recorded as living at Munfin in 1715 (Catholic Non-jurors list), it would appear that sometime after his ‘dismission’ from the army, he had returned to Wexford.

Of the other six officers named in the Report;
Timothy Daly, was Capt in Second in the French Service and later Lt Colonel in Second to General Sheldon’s regiment, served in Spain and Portugal- granted ₤302.10
Thos MacCarty, Captain of Horse, preferred in the Emperor’s Service in Spain, continues in service- granted ₤227.10
Matthew Cowdall, Captain of ffoot, quitted 1704, recommended on half pay as pensioner- granted ₤159
Patrick O’Hara, Capt of Horse in Spanish Service, quitted 1710- on half pay- granted  ₤133.14.6
Gerard Dillon, Capt of Horse in Spanish service quitted 1710, recommended to King of Sicely- granted  ₤150.7.6
Robert Talbot, Capt of ffoot in ffrench service, in yr 1709 came over to Emperor’s Service in Germany- granted   ₤123
Michael Fitzgerald, Capt of ffoot quitted 1704 to Emperor’s Service in Germany- granted  ₤123
Patrick Maly, Capt of ffoot in Ffrench service, quitted 1704, to be granted half pay if conforms to Church of England, if not to receive… a Bounty of ₤200
Hubert Jennings, Capt Commandant of Horse in ffrench Service, quitted 1704, came over to Earl of Gallway, recommended to any foreign service- granted  ₤427.15
Chas Molloy, Capt of Horse in ffrench Service, quitted 1710 and served under Duke of Marlborough and Eugene, recommended to Emperor’s Service- granted  ₤127.15

From Gwyn’s recommendations for the other officers, it is noticeable that those officers wishing to continue in the service of the allies were compensated more generously.

The following year, probably after the grants recommended by Gwyn were approved by Treasury, Walter presented the following petition. Unfortunately, it does not indicate the response to his petition [xxv]:


To the King’s most Excellent Majesty
The Humble Petition of Lieut Colon Walter Butler one of the Seven Irish Officers who quitted the Enemy’s Service in Obedience to her late Majesty’s proclamation
That Your Petitioner on her late Majesty’s proclamation quitted the Enemy’s Service to
Embrace that of her Majesty or Allies, as appears by the late Earl of Carlingford’s Letter of recommendation of him to Prince Eugene of Savoy, Dated the 2 May 1704, under whose Comand he served in the Emperor’s Service 4 Years, as appears by the Prince’s Letter Dated the 10th May 1708 from Vienna, in Answer to one Your Petitioner wrote him the 28 of April before, from ____ Imperial Camp at Ostiglia (ie in Lombardy Italy), Desiring his Dismission, he not being able to Subsist himself any longer and having received no pay for 4 years past, During which time he spent upwards of ₤600  of his own Mony, nor had he wherewithal to bear his charges, or ever recev’d any satisfaccon for his arrears or could he get away, till his father sent him a Bill of ₤150 to Leghorne; It likewise appears by the Prince’s said Letter of Dismission in High Dutch, now ready to be produced (as also Count Helersteeme [xxvi] the then Comanding Gen/als pass, in obedience to the Prince’s said Letter of Dismission) that his Highness said he had nothing to say against what reasons Your Petitioner gave for his Dismission, but that he would adjust his Accounts with Col (Walter Butler crossed out and rewritten- Werther) or with Baron Martini about his arrears, and what was Due to him, since at the same time he had wrote to both of them concerning the one and the other, and that Care should be taken to Content him, as farr as the present State of Warr would allow.

That Francis Groyn (Gwynn) Esq late Secretary at Warr was grosely unjust to Your Petitioner
in particular. In his Report to the Earl of Oxford then Lord High Treasurer upon the Case of the said Officers by the misrepresentation he made of Your Petitioner’s Examination taken before the Lords of the Committee of the Councill the 16 Decr 1713 as appears by the attested Examination annex’d to the Report made by the Honorable H. Pulteney sq. to the Lord Com. Ors of the Treasury, the 10th June last, before whom it ever since ___, together with Mr Groyn’s report, to both which Reports, Your Petitioner referrs for the truth of his allegations.

That Your Petitioner Beggs leave to remark to your Majesty tho’ Mr Groyn by his Uncharitable misrepresentation of Your Petitioner’s Examinacon before the Lords of the Committee of the Council As aforesaid, by his Report, only says Your Petitioner alledged he quitted a Lieut. Colon of Foot post in the French Service, and serv’d the Emperor 4 Years. Yet that he should be so unjust to the Queen, upon Your Petitioner bare(?) allegation, to propose that her Majesty as of her Royal Bounty, should be Graciously pleased to Grant him Six months pay as Lieut. Colon of Foot, the post he quitted in the French Army, nor can he hitherto get even that Six Months pay, after so many Years Solicitation.

May it therefore please Your Sacred Majesty for as much as the said Mr Groyn to Your
Petitioners very great prejudice, very forgetfully Reported that he Examined Your Petitioner’s said
Examination before the Lords of the Councill, and that he only alledged he served 4 years in the Emperor’s Service, without mentioning his producing the said Letters or pass, therefore
For Your Disconsolate Petitioner’s Relief (who only craves common justice) he humbly beggs Your Majesty will Order the Lord’s Com/rs  of the Treasury to examine the Extract relating to Your Petitioner’s Case in both the said Reports, and the said attested Examination, and if upon calling Your Petitioner before them, He shall justify his said allegations, and produce the said Letters and pass, to pay him his Said just Demand, and on performance of Publick faith, pursuant to the said proclamation,
Your Petitioner humbly prays Your Majesty will be Graciously pleased to Order such provision for his Future Subsistance, as to Your Majesty, in Your great Wisdom & Justice Shall Seem meet
And Your Petitioner will ever pray etc.

His petition reveals that he had expended ₤600 of his own money, and that he was in such a poor financial state that he was unable to return until his father sent him a Bill of ₤150 to Leghorne, which is on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy. Walter wrote his letter to Prince Eugene in April 1708, from the Imperial camp at Ostiglia, which is in Lombardy in northern Italy. He had stated that he could not “get away until his father sent him the Bill of ₤150 to Leghorne”, which may have been the port from which he sailed home.
Eugene replied in a letter dated 10 May 1708 granting him his ‘dismission’. Walter also received a pass from the then “Commanding General at the Imperial Camp of Ostiglia, Count Helersteeme” (probably the Austrian noble Carl Leopold Graf (ie. Count) von Herberstein, rank of General in the Imperial army in 1707, sent to Italy in 1701 with three battalions).  Eugene had frequently complained to the Emperor of lack of funds for his troops, the state of finances in the Austrian state having been drained by years of warfare.
His petition indicates that he had not even received the 6 months pay allocated to him, let alone the payment for a further 6 months that he alledged was due to him. He also says after so many years Soliciation, which indicates that he had been trying to receive justice in this matter for many years.

The  following record would appear to be related:
Undated HMC   7th Report p.828 [xxvii]
Petition of Lieut. Colonel Walter Butler to the Marquis of Ormonde for arrears of pay.
The 2nd Duke of Ormonde was Captain General from 1711 until his exile in August 1715, so this petition probably pre-dated Gwyn’s report, and his claim for arrears of pay may have begun as far back as 1711/12.

 A further reason why Walter chose mid 1708, to leave the service of Eugene, was probably due to the actions of Eugene during 1708, outlined earlier, where he left his own army to join Marlborough, taking command of the Imperial army on the Moselle. Walter wrote his letter to Eugene at Vienna, asking for a “dismission”. Eugene’s army at that time would appear to have been stationed in Lombardy to protect their gains in northern Italy from the French. Walter stated that he wrote the letter from Ostiglia in Lombardy, about 90 miles SE of Milan. According to Wikipedia, “The Imperial victory in Italy, viz. at the Battle of Turin in September 1706, marked the beginning of 150 years of Austrian rule in Lombardy, and earned Eugene the Governership of Milan.” This period of inaction, accompanied by his desperate financial state may have triggered Walter’s decision to retire.

Walter Butler Senior’s petition re the lifting of the attainder of his son, also indicated that Walter Junior would not receive any inheritances.In the Petition on behalf of Walter Butler Junior, the statement was made that his said father hath no estate but what he acquired himself which therefore he may dispose of as he thinks fit so there is nothing to come to the Crown or the Public by the Attainder or absence of the said Walter Butler Jnr.”

This was an interesting statement, given that Walter Butler Snr was granted considerable lands under the Act of Settlement. Under the current rules, this land was to be inherited by his son and heir, although it looked increasingly that his heir would be prevented from doing so. A series of bills passed by the Parliament between 1697 and 1704, would further restrict Walter Senior’s right to “dispose of his estate as he thinks fit”, as stated in his Petition.
By these Acts, Catholics were not permitted to leave their estates to their Catholic heir in their will, and the estates were therefore forfeited to the Crown, and sold to Protestants.

These Penal Laws that were introduced were the root of great dissatisfaction and bitterness within the Catholic community, which would reverberate down through the decades culminating in the Rebellion of 1798.

Penal Laws 1697-99: no Papist could keep a school, or teach in private families, except the children of the family; no Papist could bear arms, contrary to the express terms of article vii of the treaty; by the same statute to send a child beyond the seas was a felony, the case to be tried by a justice, not by a jury, and the burden of proof to fall on the accused; mixed marriages were forbidden, and if either parent were a Protestant, “the children could be taken from the other to be reared in that faith.” No Papist could be a legal guardian- the court of chancery to appoint one, and educate the ward a Protestant. By the same statute, rewards were fixed for informers against the violators of those laws, the amount to be “levied on the Papist inhabitants of the county.”
In 1703, Queen Anne approved the following bill: the infamous “act to prevent the further growth of Popery,” which provided that the oldest son of a Catholic, on becoming an apostate, might turn his father’s estate into a tenantry for life, and take the fee simple and rental to himself. By the same statute, of a Catholic inherited property, he should conform within 6 months from the date the title accrued or the estate be forfeited to the next “Protestant heir”. By Statute of the same year, if an unregistered priest was detected, a heavy fine was to be levied on the county in which he was found, and the proceeds paid over to the informer or detective.

The most serious provision of the 1703 Act was that which precluded Catholics from holding land on any longer terms other than a 31 years lease. To make this reprehensible law workable it was provided that the first Protestant to discover a Catholic holding land in fee simple could claim its possession. It the enactment wre to become asuccessful practice it would be just a matter of time until all Catholic lnad owners would be deprived of their land, unless they conformed. Fortuneatley for many of them they had loyal friends among the Protestant community, who came to their aid by going through some form of purchase of their lands, and then allowing them to continue in occupation on lease. For the rest of Sir Toby Butler’s life he was from time to time obliged to employ all his undoubted ingenuity to combat the hostile attention of Protestant Discoverers, the name by which those who attempted to take advantage of this provision were known. Sir Toby himself, appreciating that he was likely to be among the first to become a victim of this new land code, before the act became law, conveyed all his estates in Clare, Tipperary and Waterford to one Richard Tisdale of Dublin, a Proptestant, in thrust for himself and his heirs, who honourably kept the trust reposed in him.[xxviii]

Sir Toby Butler, the Catholic attorney who framed the articles of the Treaty of Limerick, made a memorable speech in the House of Lords: [xxix]

“On the 22nd February, 1703, Sir Toby Butler, with whom were Sir Stephen Rice [xxx] and Councillor Malone, appeared at the bar of the Irish House of Commons against the bill, ‘to prevent the further growth of Popery’. The abstract of his speech on that occasion is one of the most remarkable documents of the age”
The following quote is taken from that speech and eloquently illustrates the feelings of Catholics about one particular section of this bill:
“By the first of these clauses, (which is the 3rd of the bill) I, that am a Popish father, without committing any crime against the state, or the laws of the land (by which only I ought to be governed), or any other fault, but merely for being of the religion of my forefathers, and that which, till of late years, was the ancient religion of these kingdoms, contrary to the express words of the second article of Limerick, and the public faith plighted as aforesaid for their performance, am deprived of my inheritance, freehold, &c., and of all other advantages which, by those articles, and the laws of the land, I an entitled to enjoy, equally with every other of my fellow subjects, whether Protestant or Popish. And though such my estate be even the purchase of my own hard labour and industry, yet I shall not (though my occasions be never so pressing) have liberty (after my eldest son or other heir becomes a Protestant) to sell, mortgage or otherwise dispose of, or charge it for payment of my debts, or have leave, out of my own estate to order portions for my other children; or leave a legacy, though never so small, to my poor father or mother, or other poor relations; but during my own life, my estate (p177) shall be given to my son or other heir being a Protestant, though never so undutifully, profligate, extravagant, or otherwise undeserving; and I, that am the purchasing father, shall become the tenant, for life only, to my own purchase, inheritance, and freehold, which I purchased with my own money; and such my son or other heir, by this act, shall be at liberty to sell or otherwise at pleasure to dispose of my estate, the sweat of my brows, before my face; and I, that am the purchaser, shall not have liberty to raise one farthing upon the estate of my own purchase, either to pay my debts or portion my daughters (if any I have) or make provisions for my other male children, though never so deserving and dutiful; but my estate, and the issues and profits of it, shall before my face, be at the disposal of another, who cannot possibly know how to distinguish between the dutiful and undutiful, deserving and undeserving. Is not this, gentlemen (said he,) a hard case? I beseech you, gentlemen, to consider whether you would not think so, if the scale was changed, and the case your own, as it is like to be ours, if this bill pass into a law. It is natural for the father to love the child; but we all know (says he) that children are but too apt and subject, without any such liberty as this bill gives, to slight and neglect their duty to their parents; and surely such an act as this will not be an instrument of restraint, but rather encourage them more to it.”
“It is but too common, with the son, who has a prospect of an estate, when once he arrives at the age of one and twenty, to think the old father too long in the way between him and it; and how much more will he be subject to it, when, by this act, he shall have liberty, before he comes to that age, to compel and force my estate from me, without asking my leave, or being liable to account with me for it, or out of his share thereof, to a moiety of the debts, portions, or other encumbrances, with which the estate might have been charged before the passing this act?”
“Is not this against the laws of God and man? (p178) against the rules of reason and justice; by which all men ought to be governed? Is not this the only way in the world to make children become undutiful? And to bring the gray head of the parent to the grave with grief and tears?”
“It would be hard from any man; but from a son, a child, the fruit of my body, whom I have nursed in my bosom, and tendered more dearly than my own life, to become my plunderer, to rob me of my estate, to cut my throat, and to take away my bread, is much more grievous than from any other, and enough to make the most flinty of hearts to bleed to think on it. And yet this will be the case if this bill pass into a law; which I hope this honourable assembly will not think of, when they shall more seriously consider, and have weighed these matters.”
“For God’s sake, gentlemen, will you consider whether this is according to the golden rule, to do as you would be done unto? And if not, surely you will not, nay, you cannot, without being liable to be charged with the most manifest injustice imaginable, take from us our birthrights, and invest them in others before our faces.”
“Councillor Malone was also heard, and Sir Stephen Rice, as a party interested, offered some remarks. But their arguments were fruitless. The bill was engrossed and sent to the Lords, where on the 28th February, Sir Toby and Malone were again heard against it. It was, however, passed, under the protest of a respectable minority, and on the 4th March, it received the royal assent of the queen.
It was only at the bar that Irish Catholics could look for defenders, now that their soldiers were far away. In the following reign, an act was passed excluding Catholics from the profession of the law- an act, which was not repealed until 1793. After Sir Toby Butler, there is a blank of lawyers- a fact, which partly accounts for the prevalence of illegal agrarian societies, from about 1760, until the end of the century.”
“Sir Toby was a noted wit of his day and is reputed to have been a heavy toper. Indeed, it has been said of him that he was at his best in court only when he had consumed a fair share of liquor.” [xxxi]


One salient point of his petition in 1715 was Gwyn’s statement that Walter, “being married and settled here, declines going abroad”. It is unknown exactly when Walter married, but it would appear to have been around 1706, possibly during the months when the army had retired into winter camp and a return home to Ireland. Walter’s marriage, which was in all probability arranged by his father, would promote the kinship between the Butlers of Munphin and the House of Stuart. His English wife’s family, on both the paternal and maternal sides, were connected with those holding the highest offices of power in England, including the Royal family, in addition to the most renowned authors in the literary and scholarly world at that time.

Having now retired from active military service, Walter returned to Wexford and the home of his father at Munphin to live a quiet life raising his family. Early in 1709, the British Parliament, with the Queen’s consent, passed the Amnesty Act by which a general pardon was passed for all correspondence with the Court of Saint-Germain, and, for all past treasonable actions of any kind except treason upon the high seas. This last provision was designed to exclude the Jacobites who had actually sailed in the unsuccessful invasion fleet the year before, such as Lord Galmoy. By this time, nearly twenty years had passed since the bitter war in Ireland. Despite a simmering undercurrent of resentment, peace had returned to the kingdom, and recriminations of treason forgotten and forgiven, or so it would seem.

Walter's advantageous marriage which would once again link the family with the House of Stuart, will be continued in the next chapter

© BA Butler

Contact:  butler1802   @  (no spaces)

Link back to the Introductory page:

Links to the Butlers of Munphin Co. Wexford on this blog:

Walter Butler Senior of Munphin, Co. Wexford, c.1640-1717, Part I
Walter Butler of Munphin (c.1640-1717), Part II
Walter Butler of Munphin (c.1640-1717), Part III
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part I- exile to France in 1690
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part II- Military record
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part III- Marriage to Mary Long
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part IV- Last years

Links to all of the chapters in this blog:

Pierce Butler of Kayer Co. Wexford (the elder) c.1540-1599
Edward Butler of Kayer Co. Wexford, 1577-1628
Pierce Butler of Kayer and Moneyhore (the younger), c.1600-1652, Part I
Pierce Butler of Kayer and Moneyhore Part II- Pierce Butler's role in the 1642-49 Catholic Confederate Rebellion
Pierce Butler of Kayer and Moneyhore Part III- Depositions against Pierce Butler of Kayer on his role in the 1642-49 Catholic Confederate Rebellion
Pierce Butler of Kayer and Moneyhore Part IV- Land Ownership by the Butlers in County Wexford
Pierce Butler of Kayer and Moneyhore Part V- Pierce Butler and the Cromwellian Confiscations of 1652-56
Sons of Pierce Butler of Kayer and Moneyhore- Edward, James, John, & Walter
Walter Butler of Munphin, Co. Wexford, c.1640-1717, Part I
Walter Butler of Munphin, Part II
Walter Butler of Munphin, Part III
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part I- exile to France in 1690
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part II- Military record
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part III- Marriage to Mary Long
Walter Butler Junior of Munphin (1674-1725) Part IV- Last years
Younger sons of Richard 1st Viscount Mountgarrett: John Butler of New Ross, Thomas Butler of Castlecomer, James and Theobald Butler:
James Butler of Dowganstown and Tullow Co Carlow- 2nd son of Pierce Butler of Kayer (the elder):

Pedigree of Butlers of Ireland, and Ancestry of Butlers of Ireland, and County Wexford:

The MacRichard Line- Ancestors of the Butlers of Wexford

[i]  The War of the Spanish Succession was fought 1701-1714 in which several European powers including England combined to stop a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under a single Bourbon monarch, upsetting the European balance of power. Prince Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough distinguished themselves as military commanders in the Low Countries for the allies. The Duke of Berwick (James II’s illeg son) and his brother-in-law Viscount Galmoy distinguished themselves fighting for the French, which was even acknowledged in the English newspapers.
[ii] Winston S. Churchill, Marlborough: His Life and Times, op.cit, Book 1, p.495, p.711
[iii] Róisín Ní Mheara, The Wild Geese in Austria, Seanchas Ardmhacha: Journal of the Armagh Diocesan Historical Society, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1994) p84-85, pub. Cummann Seanchais Ard Mhacha/Armagh Diocesan Historical Society; Stable URL:; accessed 24/4/2010
[iv] Charles V (sometimes designated IV) titular Duke of Lorraine was married to Eleonora Josefa of Austria, half-sister to Leopold I Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles had found refuge with the Habsburgs after the French invasion and occupation  of Lorraine in 1633 (and again in 1670).( Charles V’s uncle, Charles IV/III Duke of Lorraine was forced to abdicate in favour of his younger brother Nicholas, father of Charles V.) He first distinguished himself against the Turks in 1664, then through the 1670’s, and in 1683 when he led the Imperialist contingent in the army which relieved Vienna and Hungary from the Turks, taking Buda in 1686 and the rest of Hungary in 1687. When Charles died in 1690 he was succeeded by his son Leopold Joseph, who was sent to Vienna to receive a military education under the supervision of Emperor Leopold I, his uncle. He joined the Imperial Army at age 18 and was in command of the Army of the Rhine in 1697, when, after the Treaty of Ryswick, he was restored to the Duchy of Lorraine. In 1698 Leopold Joseph made a triumphant return to his capital Nancy.
[v] John Cornelius O’Callaghan, History of the Irish Brigades in the Service of France, pub. Glascow 1885. P143, and note on p211
[vi] Wikipedia- Cuirassier
[vii] Wikipedia, The Battle of Speyerbach, Sources: The Spanish Succession- ; and,  Albert Kennel, Die Schlacht bei Spever (German)
[viii] Wikipedia- Eugene of Savoy
[ix] Friedrich Heer, The Holy Roman Empire, (trans. Weidenfield & Nicolson), Phoenix Press, 2002, p.228
[x] Winston S. Churchill, Marlborough, op.cit., Book 2, p.349 (Grumbkow to Frederick I, 1708)
[xi] Wikipedia- Prince Eugene of Savoy
[xii] Prince Eugene of Savoy, Memoirs of Prince Eugene of Savoy, translated from French by William Mudford, London, 1811, p.67
[xiii] Prince Eugene of Savoy, Memoirs of Prince Eugene of Savoy, translated from the French by William Mudford, London, 1811,  page 44
[xiv] Wikipedia- Prince Eugene of Savoy
[xv] Guido Starhemberg, Count of Starhemburg, was transferred from his command post in Italy and appointed commander-in-chief of the Imperial Army in Hungary 1706-08.
[xvi] Winston S. Churchill, Marlborough: His Life and Times. op.cit,, Book I, p.865. Notably, Marlborough was rewarded for this great victory by Queen Anne and the Parliament with a gift of the Woodstock estate and the Palace of Blenheim in Oxfordshire, birthplace of Winston Churchill.
[xvii] Prince Eugene, Memoirs of Prince Eugene of Savoy, op.cit., p76
[xviii] “Irish Casualties at Cassano” by Brendan Jennings, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, Vol. 21, No. ¾ (1945) pp.128-132. URL:, Accessed 14/10/2010
[xix] Prince Eugene, Memoirs, op,cit., p85-87
[xx] Winston S. Churchill, Marlborough: His Life and Times, op.cit., Book 2, p.182
[xxi] Prince Eugene, Memoirs, op.cit., p88
[xxii] The Calendar of Treasury Papers, Vol 4 (1708-1714), p607, Vol CLXXVIII- 1714 about July 15, No.33  
[xxiii] Calendar of Treasury Papers, Vol 5 (1714-1719), p150, -Vol CXCII- 1715 (about 28 October). No. 81. Petition to the King of Lt-Col Walter Butler (MEMSO: Medieval & early modern sources online, (pub TannerRitchie)]
[xxiv] T 1/178: Treasury In Letters 1714 July 1-20 - abt 15 July 1714, No. 33, contains (ex-Secretary-at-war), Francis Gwyn's report of the cases of several RC officers who quitted the enemy in the late war and came over to the Allies- including Col. Walter Butler. Their cases individually reported on. Minuted 15 July 1714- referred to Mr Secretary-at-war to be further examined. 6 pages.
[xxv] T 1/192: Treasury In Letters 1715 Sept.-Oct - 28 October 1715, no. 81. Petition to the King of Lt-Col Walter Butler, one of the officers who quitted the enemy's service etc.
[xxvi] The Commanding General referred to, Count Hellensteeme, was possibly Charles (Karl) Alexander, Duke of Wurttemberg-Winnential, b.1684, nephew and heir of Wilhelm Ludwig Duke of Wurttemberg (field marshall of the Swabian troops in 1707). Charles Alexander was a successful army commander in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor under Prince Eugene, and converted to Roman Catholicism in 1712. Hellenstein Castle, a symbol of the Wurttemberg dukes in the 17th and early 18th centuries, was in eastern Wurttemberg in SW Germany. –Wikipedia. He possibly took command of the forces in Italy when Guido Starhemberg, Count of Starhemburg, was transferred from his command post in Italy and appointed commander-in-chief of the Imperial Army in Hungary 1706-08.
[xxvii] Seventh Report of the Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Volume 8 (1000-1800), p.828 Undated Petition to the Marquis of Ormonde (MEMSO website). Notably T. Blake Butler, in his  Genealogy of the Butlers,-Volume 8, Viscount Mountgarrett and Poolestown, Bart, Chapter- Butler, Viscount Mountgarrett & Colaterals Ormond Deeds and Letters, Additions Sept 1958 p2  (LDS- FHL British Film [873840]), has this entry in the Mountgarrett descendants genealogy.
[xxviii] George Butler, Sir Toby Butler, Solicitor-General in Ireland, 1689-90, Dublin Historical Record, Vol 23, No. 4 (July 1970),  p121, Pub by Old Dublin Society, Stable URL-
[xxix]  Thomas D’Arcy McGee, A History of the Attempts to Establish the Protestant Reformation in Ireland: and the Successful Resistance of that People (Time: 1540-1830),  Pub  by Patrick Donahoe, Boston, 1853, p171 & 183
[xxx] Sir Stephen Rice, in 1686 the newly appointed Roman Catholic chief baron of the exchequer.
[xxxi] George Butler, Sir Toby Butler, Solicitor-General in Ireland, 1689-90, Dublin Historical Record, Vol 23, No. 4 (July 1970),  p113, Pub by Old Dublin Society, Stable URL-